By Muller I.
Offers the historical past of thermodynamics. This booklet describes the lengthy improvement of thermodynamics. It identifies the recognized physicists who built the sphere, and in addition engineers and scientists from different disciplines who helped within the improvement and unfold of thermodynamics.
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Additional info for A History of Thermodynamics
Revised void fraction dependence is to draw all the results close to the predicted expression. , 1985). 37), for fluid flow through beds of spheres over the full expansion range encountered with fluidized systems. E. N. (1960). Transport Phenomena. Wiley. C. (1937). Fluid flow through a granular bed. Trans. Inst. Chem. , 15, 150. 2001 11:33AM Fluidization-dynamics Epstein, N. (1989). On tortuosity and the tortuosity factor in flow and diffusion through porous media. Chem. Eng. , 44, 777. Ergun, S.
3, which compares them over the full operating range. Also shown in this figure is the function "À3:8 , which is likewise very similar numerically; from a practical point of view, these three forms may be regarded as interchangeable. 55 (1 À ")/"3 1. 7), as " 3 1. 31) to yield the pressure loss equations, applicable over the full expansion range, 1 ! " ! 15), for normal packed beds with " % 0:4. 34) deviates progressively from the Ergun equation, reflecting the decreasing tortuosity and inertial regime friction factor with increasing ", and the approach to single particle suspension as " approaches unity.
For the case of a sphere in a fluid stream, the drag force is made dimensionless by dividing by any convenient reference level that also possesses the dimensions of force. Thus the dimensionless drag force, or drag coefficient CD , may be expressed: CD À fd ÁÀ f u2f =2 dp2 =4 ÁY 2:5 where the denominator, the chosen reference level, is the product of the kinetic energy possessed by a unit volume of the fluid and the projected area of the sphere. Although quite arbitrary, this has become the standard definition of the drag coefficient.
A History of Thermodynamics by Muller I.